Climatic Zonation of Pakistan through Precipitation-Effectiveness Index Nadeem Faisal1 and Naeem Sadiq1 Abstract This paper attempts to describe the zonation of Pakistan using Precipitation-Effectiveness (PE) Index. In agriculture, soil moisture plays a key role that depends on the ratio of precipitation to evaporation, often expressed Studies suggest that precipitation effectiveness (PE) within the Thornthwaite moisture index is overestimated in the summer and underestimated in the winter.  This index can be effectively used to determine the number of herbivore and mammal species numbers within a given area.  The index is also used in studies of climate change.  Relative water content is approximated from the Budyko dryness ratio and the Thornthwaite PE index with similar results. CE is calculable from wind speed and other generally available meteorological data, and is usable in the wind erosion equation without some of the limitations of a previously used wind erosion climatic factor. (referred to as PE_pm [Burke et al., 2006]), which accounts for the effects of radiation, humidity, and wind speed and works best over Australia in a comparison of various PE formulations by Donohue et al. . Palmer  chose the PE_th mainly based on practical considerations as data for computing PE_pm and other types of PE might be On the other hand, since PE, as water-need, represents the maximum amount of water evaporated and transpired under conditions of no water deficiency at any time, the ratio of AE to PE varies with the available moisture in the soil. This ratio, termed "index of moisture adequacy", thus provides a good indication of the moisture status An analysis of the criticism of Thornthwaite's equa- tion for estimating potential evapotranspiration. Agric. For. Meteorol., 46:149 157. Thornthwaite's approach for estimating potential evapotranspiration has been reviewed and an analysis of the criticism of its suitability was performed. M.B. Kirkham, in Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2005. Publisher Summary. The term potential evapotranspiration must be defined when we talk of evapotranspiration. The concept of potential evapotranspiration was put forth by Thornthwaite (1948) and Penman (1948).The chapter uses the definition of Rosenberg, noting that his definition is similar to that of Penman.
conditions of individual stations were estimated by using he Thornthwaite and Mt ather (1955) water balance technique indices namely Index of aridity (Ia), Index of humidity (Ib) and Index of moisture were computed. Based on the moisture Indices (1m) it is found that the climate of the state is under the influence of two climate types namely,
Warren. Thornthwaite, el cual consiste en el cálculo mediante fórmulas que consideran los índices climáticos relacionados al grado de eficiencia de precipitación Índice de temperatura efectiva de Thornthwaite. Esta clasificación viene dada por dos índices generales, el de precipitación efectiva (PE) y el de temperatura The ratio. PE/rainfall shows the dryness of eastern Britain and wetness. (PE/ rainfall and Thornthwaite formulae are much more temperature-sen- sitive than the Potential evaporation (PE) or potential evapotranspiration (PET) is defined as the amount of evaporation that would occur if a sufficient water source were available.If the actual evapotranspiration is considered the net result of atmospheric demand for moisture from a surface and the ability of the surface to supply moisture, then PET is a measure of the demand side. SOIL MODEL w wSW ∆V/V wSH 0 γw/γd Shrink-Swell Index 1 Free Swell Test Free Shrink Test ∆ W max UNSAT. S A T U R A T E D (∆V/V)maxJ.L. Briaud -Texas A&M University. Thornthwaite climate classification System for describing climates, devised in 1931 and revised in 1948 by the American climatologist C. W. Thornthwaite, that divides climates into groups according to the vegetation characteristic of them, the vegetation being determined by precipitation effectiveness (P/E, where P is the total monthly precipitation, and E is the total monthly evaporation).
KEY WORDS: East Africa; drought indices; Palmer drought severity index; Bhalme–Mooley He estimated PE by Thornthwaite's (1948) method, which has an
Precipitation Index (SPI) [3,4], Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) , and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) [6,7,8], which can be estimated by long monthly precipitation data. SPI has several advantages. Firstly, SPI is a simple method since it only calculates based on precipitation data. The water demand (PE) was calculated using the Thornthwaite (PE_th) and Penman-Monteith (PE_pm) methods, which were subsequently used to calculate the drought indices. These drought indices present very different future drought intensities in the Great Plains under climate change. The Soils Laboratory Manual, K-State Edition is designed for students in undergraduate, introductory soil science courses, and highlights the many aspects of soil science, including: soil genesis and classification, soil physical properties, soil-water interaction, soil biology, soil chemistry, and soil fertility. The lab manual includes 15 different laboratories, each one starting with an PE = Thornthwaite's Precipitation-Evaporation (PE) Index (dimensionless). The frequency of disturbances per month, f, is defined as the number of actions that could expose fresh surface material. If the entire area is not disturbed, this frequency should be weighted to reflect the actual area exposed. The moist and dry climates are thus separated by the moisture index of zero. The second index used to define climatic provinces is the annual PE itself. Extensive research at the Laboratory of Climatology has shown that the growth of cultivated crops is highly correlated with the accumulation of PE. Thornthwaite and Mather's modified moisture index scheme, which is widely used and accepted by scientific community, is adopted to classify the climate of Delhi. According to the moisture indices, the entire city falls under the semiarid category of climate, except at a location, where it shifted to dry sub humid. estimation of moisture index and aridity index Moisture index A term based on the computation of an annual moisture budget by C. W. Thornthwaite (1955), and calculated from the aridity and humidity indices, as Im = 100 × (S − D)/PE, where Im is the moisture index, S is the water surplus in months when precipitation exceeds
Applying Thornthwaite's (1948) calculation method for PE, which has been used in calculation of the PDSI (Palmer, 1965; Karl, 1986), we have PE˚hTa, where T is monthly mean surface air temperature in degrees Celsius, h˚1.6(10:I)a(I)Ta(I) with I being the heat index (Thornthwaite, 1948) and a a function of I given in Thornthwaite (1948
M.B. Kirkham, in Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2005. Publisher Summary. The term potential evapotranspiration must be defined when we talk of evapotranspiration. The concept of potential evapotranspiration was put forth by Thornthwaite (1948) and Penman (1948).The chapter uses the definition of Rosenberg, noting that his definition is similar to that of Penman. 1867-11 College of Soil Physics Donald Gabriels 22 October - 9 November, 2007 Dept. Soil Management Ghent University Emberger Aridity Index UNEP Aridity Index Thornthwaite Classification PE Index Climate More than 128 Wet 64-127 Humid
index (PDSI), the Bhalme-Mooley index (BMI) and the standardized precipitation index (SPI). We modiﬁed the original PDSI's recursive formula, potential runoff, and Z index, which produced more realistic results than the original PDSI (designed for the USA) for East Africa. We improved the SPI by ﬁrst using a plotting position formula
Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is an extension of the widely used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPEI is designed to take into account both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in determining drought.
ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the Koeppen's, Thornthwaite and G.T. Trewartha classification of climate. Classification by Koeppen's: The German botanist and climatologist Wladimir Koeppen presented his descriptive scheme of the classification of world climates first in 1900 based on vegetation zones of French plant physiologist Candolle presented in 1874. He The Thornthwaite Moisture Index (TMI) was introduced by C.W. Thornthwaite (Thornthwaite, 1948) to classify the climate conditions of different geographical areas. It is a dimensionless index varying from +100 to -100 representing climate conditions from humid to arid respectively. TMI is calculated using two indices called aridity index (I a), and